Atom activists say, helped that the disaster has Fukushima in Japan public opinion against nuclear vary.
The referendums are also as a test of the popularity of Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi is seen.
Italy's last nuclear programme was abandoned in 1987 after the Chernobyl disaster.
The Government says that a nuclear industry is essential to provide about 20% of electricity needs by 2020.
But the disaster on the Fukushima plant, which crippled by the tsunami and earthquakes, the North Japan in March, has the debate changed completely.
Now Salvatore Barbera, the campaign group says Greenpeace, people have seen the dangers and will vote against nuclear energy in the referendum
"This is an old technology, it is dangerous, as we saw in Fukushima," he said.
"It is dangerous, if it works, it is dangerous, if nuclear waste, no one in the world you know how to deal with it, and it is now expensive.""Environmentally friendly"
Italy Germany follows and refuses to be nuclear power, which is particularly disappointing, many in the industry who believe alternative sources of electricity are not reliable.
Silvio Rossignoli from the air and space group Sekur says only nuclear supply can guarantee.
"We want nuclear because it is environmentally friendly and it is much cleaner than coal and gas," he said.
"It is not of the on the import from other countries, where you never know what happens."
Italians are also requested, vote on issues of water privatization and whether Ministers of the Government legal action can be excluded.
This is especially important, Mr Berlusconi, who is currently involved in four studies.
There's a lot on the game is in this referendum, with the results due on Monday.